THREE WAVES OF FINNISH IMMIGRATION
1st Wave: 1890 – 1914 | 2nd Wave: 1922 – 1930 | 3rd Wave: 1960
Between 1860 – 2008, 1.4 million people emigrated from Finland to communities around the world.
The Grand Opening of the Hall took place in 1910. The building was designated a National Historical Site of Canada in 2011.
A confluence in east-west communication, the Lakehead was home to socialists, trade unionists and mainstream liberals in over 60 organizations who fought for common goals.
74.39% of Male Finns were general labourers
WERE PRIMARILY HOTEL STAFF, COOKS, AND DOMESTICS.
THE WAGES OF FINNISH WOMEN WERE LESS THEN HALF OF MEN'S IN EQUIVALENT JOBS
Top employers of General Labourers
On January 1, 1970, a merger of the cities of Fort William, Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre.
The Finnish community in Canada has never been homogenous. While socialist-orientated “Red Finns” outnumbered the more religious and conservative “White Finns” until the late 1950s, Finnish immigrants held a variety of political beliefs. Although more socially progressive than average Canadians at the time, First Wave Finns (1888-1914) were often radicalized by their experiences in Canada. Second Wave Finns (1917-1930), many of who were political refugees fleeing Finland after the Russian Revolution and Finnish Civil War, arrived with strong socialist beliefs. Canadian immigration policy after the Second World War reflected Cold War fears and ensured that Third Wave Finns (1950-1970) were much more anti-socialist. For many, the promise of a new beginning in Canada was quelled by the reality of harsh working conditions, ethnic prejudice and the social inequalities. Seeking to contribute positively to social change, Finns at the Lakehead played a significant role in the development of the Canadian labour and socialist movements. LONG READ
By the early 1900s, Lake Superior’s north shore evolved from a declining fur trading outpost to an important transportation hub with a bustling grain shipping terminal, a railway centre and fledgling businesses and services. In response to the promise of opportunities, the population of the Lakehead increased rapidly. Immigrants from different regions of Finland were vital to economic development. With their deeply rooted attachment to the land they adapted easily to life in the Boreal Forest, with its isolation, challenging weather conditions, poor transportation and other demands. Familiar with unskilled labour, men worked in the mines, logging camps, railroads and docks. Single women worked as domestic servants and lumber camp cooks. The Finns settled in almost every rural township in Northwestern Ontario believing that they were only in Canada temporarily before returning to their homeland with their fortune. …LONG READ